In regards to #2, it varies based on other factors such as time between past restrictions. You'd need to ask on a case by case basis. If you do not login for 48 hours IIRC you'll be back to 12 minute restrictions. The progression IIRC is 12 minute --> 1 hour --> 12 hours.
For all other information refer to the thread here:
This thread is updated not only by Maged but by Blizzard reps as well to reflect the current state of the system.
Formerly Bob_the_Evil @ USWest